Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as persistence of vision — whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed.
Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion — a psychological effect identified as beta movement.
Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue.
Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them.
Main article: History of film
These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns), and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision.
By the 1880s, the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience.
These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as "motion pictures".
The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles.
Rather than leave the audience in silence, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music fitting the mood of the film at any given moment.
But a color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color afteend of World War II, as the industryin America came to view color an essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s.
Main article: Film theory
Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of film/cinema as art. Classical film theory provides a structural framework to address classical issues of techniques, narrativity, diegesis, cinematic codes, "the image", genre, subjectivity, and authorship.
More recent analysis has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structural list film theory, feminist film theory and others.
Main article: Film criticism
Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films.
In general this can be divided into academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media.
Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases.
Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions.
For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important.
Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss.
The impact of reviewer on a film's box office performance is a matter of debate.
Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it.
However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily-promoted movies that were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence.
This work is more often known as film theory or film studies.
Rather than write for newspaper or appear on television their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines.
They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities.
The motion picture industry
Main article: Film industry
The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon the process was invented.
Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumieres quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses.
In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially.
Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world.
Whether the ten thousand-plus features a year produced by the Valley industry should qualify for this title is source of some debate.
Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish.
Also, film quickly came to be used in education, in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts.
Stages of filmmaking
Main article: Filmmaking
However, a low-budget, independent film may be made with a skeleton crew, often paid very little.
Filmmaking takes place all over the world using different technologies, styles of acting and genre, and is produced in a variety of economic contexts that range from state-sponsored documentary in China to profit-oriented movie making within the American studio system.
This production cycle typically takes three years.
The first year is taken up with development.
The second year comprises preproduction and production.
The third year, post-production and distribution.
Main article: Film crew
Main article: Independent film
Creatively, it was becoming increasingly difficult to get studio backing for experimental films.
Experimental elements in theme and style are inhibitors for the big studios.
On the business side, the costs of big-budget studio films also leads to conservative choices in cast and crew.
Film requires expensive lighting and post-production facilities.
But the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985, and more importantly, the arrival of high-resolution digital video in the early 1990s, have lowered the technology barrier to movie production significantly.
Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered; today, the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal computer.
Technologies such as DVDs, IEEE 1394 connections and non-linear editing system pro-level software like Adobe Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro, and consumer level software such as Final Cut Express and iMovie make movie-making relatively inexpensive.
Since the introduction of DV technology, the means of production have become more democratized.
Filmmakers can conceivably shoot and edit a movie, create and edit the sound and music, and mix the final cut on a home computer.
However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system.
Most independent filmmakers rely on film festivals to get their films noticed and sold for distribution.
Main article: Animation
Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera.
When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision).
Graphics file formats like GIF, MNG, SVG and Flash allow animation to be viewed on a computer or over the Internet.
The first theater designed exclusively for cinema opened in Pittsburgh, Pennsy in 1905.
Thousands of such theaters were built converted from existing facilities wa few years.
In the United States, these theaters came to known as nickelodeons, because admission typically cost a nickel (five cents).
Typically, one film is the featured pre(ofeature film).
There were "double features"; typically, a high quality "A picture" rented by an independent theater for a lump sum, and a "B picture" of lower quality rented for a percentage of the gross receipts.
Today, the bulk of the material shown before the feature film (those in theaters) consists of previews for upcoming movies and paid advertisements (also known as trailers or "The Twenty").
Originally, all films were made to be shown in movie theaters.
The development of television has allowed films to be broadcast to larger audiences, usually after the film is no longer being shown in theaters.
Recording technology has also enabled consumers to rent or buy copies of films on video tape or DVD (and the older formats of laserdisc, VCD and SelectaVision — see also videodisc), and Internet downloads may be available and have started to become revenue sources for the film companies.
Some films are now made specifically for these other venues, being released as made-for-TV movies or direct-to-video movies.
These are often considered to be of inferior quality compared to theatrical releases.
And indeed, some films that are rejected by their own studios upon completion are dumped into these markets.
The movie theater pays an average of about 55% of its ticket sales to the movie studio, as film rental fees.
The actual percentage starts with a number higher than that, and decreases as the duration of a film's showing continues, as an incentive to theaters to keep movies in the theater longer.
However, today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks.
There are a few movies every year that defy this r, often limited-release movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews.
According to a 2000 study by ABN AMRO, about 26% o Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income came from box office ticket sales; 46% came from VHS and DVD sales to consumers; and 28% came from television (broadcast, cable, and pay-per-view).
Development of film technology
Film stock consists of a transparent celluloid, polyester, or acetate base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures, but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials.
Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have had a rich history, though most large commercial films are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints.
Originally moving picture film was shot and projected at various speeds using hand-cranked cameras and projectors; though 16 frames per second is generally cited as a standard silent speed, research indicates most films were shot between 16-23 fps and projected from 18 fps on up (often reels included instructions on how fast each scene should be shown) .
When sound film was introduced in the late 1920s, a constant speed was required for the sound head.
24 frames per second was chosen because it was the slowest (and thus cheapest) speed which allowed for sufficient sound quality.
Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization of cameras — allowing them to record at a consistent speed, quiet camera design — allowing sound recorded on-set to be usable without requiring large "blimps" to encase the camera, the invention of more sophisticated filmstocks and lenses, allowing directors to film in increasingly dim conditions, and the development of synchronized sound, allowing sound to be recorded at exactly the same speed as its corresponding action.
The soundtrack can be recorded separately from shooting the film, but for live-action pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously.
As a medium, film is not limited to motion pictures, since the technology developed as the basis for photography.
It can be used to present a progressive sequence of still images in the form of a slideshow.
Film has also been incorporated into multimedia presentations, and often has importance as primary historical documentation.
However, historic films have problems in terms of preservation and storage, and the motion picture industry is exploring many alternatives.
Most movies on cellulose nitrate base have been copied onto modern safety films.
Some studios save color films through the use of separation masters — three B&W negatives each exposed through red, green, or blue filters (essentially a reverse of the Technicolor process).
Digital methods have also been used to restore films, although their continued obsolescence cycle makes them (as of 2006) a poor choice for long-term preservation.
Film preservation of decaying film stock is a matter of concern to both film historians and archivists, and to companies interested in preserving their existing products in order to make them available to future generations (and thereby increase revenue).
Preservation is generally a higher-concern for nitrate and single-strip color films, due to their high decay rates; black and white films on safety bases and color films preserved on Technicolor imbibition prints tend to keep up much better, assuming proper handling and storage.
Some films in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production.
Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground as well.
These approaches are extremely beneficial to moviemakers, especially because footage can be evaluated and edited without waiting for the film stock to be processed.
Yet the migration is gradual, and as of 2005 most major motion pictures are still recorded on film.
Endurance of films
Films have been around for more than a century, however this is not long when one considers it in relation to other arts like painting and sculpture.
Many believe that film will be a long enduring art form because motion pictures appeal to diverse human emotions.
Apart from societal norms and cultural changes, there are still close resemblances between theatrical plays throughout the ages and films of today.
Romantic motion pictures about a girl loving a guy but not being able to be together for some reason, movies about a hero who fights against all odds a more powerful fiendish enemy, comedies about everyday life, etc. all involve plots with common threads that existed in books, plays and other venues.
The reason motion pictures endure is because people still want escapism, adventure, inspiration, humor and to be moved emotionally.
Civilization develops and changes, at least in surface features, and so calls for a constant renewal of artistic means to channel these desires.
Films provide them in an accessible and powerful way.
Basic types of film
List of movie-related topics (contains many other movie-related lists)
Lists of movie source material
List of Cult Films
List of film festivals
List of fantasy films
List of cinematic genres
List of movies with plot twists
List of lesbian & gay films
List of disaster movies
List of Mafia movies
List of racism-related movies
List of science fiction films
List of films about possessed or sentient inanimate objects
List punk movies
List of movie serie
Listof character-movie franchises
List of computer-animated films
List of longest movies in history
List of higgrossing
List of movie clich?
List of movies that have been considered the greatest ever
List of movies that have been considered the worst ever
List of films by gory death scene
List of films with single syllable titles
List of sequels considered better than the original
Last surviving cast member
List of film formats
The Movie Spoiler
Films by genre
Paul Read. A Short History of Cinema Film Post-Production (1896 - 2006), in English; in: Joachim Polzer (editor). Zur Geschichte des Filmkopierwerks. (On Film Lab History). Weltwunder der Kinematographie. Beitr?/FONT?ge zu einer Kulturgeschichte der Filmtechnik. Volume 8.2006. April 2006. 336 pages.
Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (ed.). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0198742428
Hagener, Malte, and T?/FONT?teberg, Michael. Fi: An International Bibliography. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2002. ISBN 3-476-01523-8
Vogel, Amos. Film As a Subversive Art. Weidenfeld & Nichols, 1974.
The Oxford History of World Cinema, Oxford UniversPress, 1999; Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, ed. Glorious Technicolor: The Movies' Magic Rainbow, Fred E. Basten. AS Barnes & Company, 1980
Reel Women. Pioneers of the Cinema. 1896 to the Present by Ally Acker, London: B.T.Batsford 1991
Reel Racism. Confronting Hollywood's Construction of Afro-American Culture,
Vincent F. Rocchio, Westview Press 2000
New Hollywood Cinema: An Introduction, Geoff King . Columbia University Press, 2002.
Notes on Film Noir Paul Schrader. Film Comment. '84?
Celluloid Mavericks: A History of American Independent Film by Greg Merritt; Thunder's Mouth Press 2001
Africa shoots back. Alternative perspectives in sub-saharan francophone african film by Melissa Thackway, Indiana University Press 2003
Glorious Technicolor; directed by Peter Jones. Based on the book (above); written by Basten & Jones. Documentary, (1998).
Francesco Casetti, Theories of Cinema, 1945-1990, Paperback Edition, University of Texas Press 1999
The Oxford Guide to Film Studies, Oxford University Press 1998
Walters Faber, Helen Walters, Algrant (Ed.), Animation Unlimited: Innovative Short Films Since 1940, HarperCollins Publishers 2004
Trish Ledoux, Doug Ranney, Fred Patten (Ed.), Complete Anime Guide: Japanese Animation Film Directory and Resource Guide, Tiger Mountain Press 1997
Media, Sex, Violence, and Drugs in the Global Village - Page 51, Kuldip R. Rampal - 2001
Barber, Theodore X. "Phantasmagorical Wonders: The Magic Lantern Ghost Show in Nineteenth-Century America." Film History 3,2 (1989): 73-86. Print.
Nelmes, Jill (2004). An introduction to film studies (3rd ed., Reprinted. ed.). London: Routledge. p. 394.ISBN 978-0-415-26269-9.
Film Academy - UK's most popular website for independent filmmaking http://www.filmacademy.co.uk
List of Super Hit BollyWood Indian Movies http://www.webmallindia.com/movielist.html
Movie Making Manual wikibook http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Movie_making_manual
The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) http://imdb.com
Yahoo! Movies http://movies.yahoo.com
Open Directory Project: Movies http://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Movies
Rotten Tomatoes http://www.rottentomatoes.com
Box Office Mojo http://www.boxofficemojo.com
Ain't It Cool News http://www.aintitcool.com
All Movie Guide http://allmovie.com
The Open Movie Database http://www.ibiblio.org/omdb
The Numbers http://www.the-numbers.com
Movie Forums http://www.movieforums.com
Rasp New Movie Database http://rasp.nexenservices.com
Leonard Maltin Movie Crazy Website http://www.leonardmaltin.com
Rose Lantern - Film student resources http://www.roselantern.com
Film Site http://www.filmsite.org
Movie Today http://www.movie-today.com